Primary Sources

"Calvin Coolidge Number." Black Hills Engineer, November 1, 1927. 

Chicago Tribune, "Coolidge Sets Up White House in Black Hills," June 16, 1927, p. 3.

“Lawrence Journal-World,Tribesmen Hear Their Big Chief.”  August 17, 1927.,1085203 (accessed April 6, 2014).

New York Times, "Coolidge Addresses 10,000 Sioux Indians as Supreme Chief," August 18, 1927, sec. Front Page.

New York Times, "Coolidge Becomes Chief of the Sioux," August 5, 1927, sec. Front Page.

New York Times, "Mrs. Caryll V. Hoffman Protects Game and Natural Beauty in South Dakota Area Honored by the Summer White House," August 28, 1927, sec. X13.

New York Times, "President Limits Trips from his Lodge," July 9, 1927, p. 30.

Rapid City Daily Journal, "8,000 Pine Ridge Reds Greet Coolidge," August 17, 1927, sec. Front Page.

Rapid City Daily Journal, "Coolidge Does not Choose to be a 1928 Candidate," August 2, 1927, sec. Front Page.

Rapid City Daily Journal, "Estimate 400,000 in Hills this Summer," September 15, 1927, sec. Front Page.

Rapid City Daily Journal, "Hills to Retain Many Reminders of Coolidge," September 2, 1927, sec. Front Page.

Rapid City Daily Journal, "President Thanks Rapid city for her Hospitality 5,000 citizens bid Coolidge Goodbye," September 9, 1927, sec. Front Page.

Rapid City Daily Journal, "Rapid City has Rich Future," September 9, 1927, sec. Front Page.

Rapid City Daily Journal, "Sioux Indians Pay Highest Tribute President Made Leading Chief," August 4, 1927, sec. Front Page.

“Sioux Indians to Name Coolidge “Still Water.” Reading Eagle, June 22, 1927. 

Evening Independent, “Indian Problem Cannot Be Solved By Sentimentality, Coolidge Says.”  August 17, 1927.,5867794 (accessed April 6, 2014).

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, McGrory, Mary. "Across the Great Divide: Clinton Visits the other America with a Belated Message.”  July 10, 1999.,4727814 (accessed April 6, 2014).

Pittsburgh Press, “Coolidge Keeps Perfect Health.” July 28, 1927.,789944 (accessed April 6, 2014).

Milwaukee Journal, “Cowboy Thrills Wait Coolidge: Town Where He is to Witness Roundup is ‘Jumping Off’ Place.” July 2, 1927.,2213708 (accessed April 6, 2014).

Milwaukee Sentinel, “Indians as Citizen.”  August 19, 1927.,2730765(accessed April 6, 2014).

Washington Post, "President has High Hope for Disarmament Meeting," June 19, 1927.

Secondary Works

Andrews, John. "The Summer that Made the Hills," South Dakota Magazine,June 23, 2011,

Fuess, Claude. Calvin Coolidge: The Man from Vermont. Little, Brown and Company in assoc. with The Atlantic Monthly Company, 1940.

Gardella, Peter. American Civil Religion: What American's Hold Sacred. Oxford University Press, 2013.

Gilbert, Robert E. The Tormented President: Calvin Coolidge, Death, and Clinical Depression. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003.

Julin, Suzanne. A marvelous hundred square miles: Black Hills tourism, 1880-1941.Pierre:South DakotaState Historical Society Press, 2009.

Lee, Bob. Black Hills Notebook

Murdoch, David Hamilton. The American West: The Invention of a Myth. University of Nevada Press, 2001.

Pietrusza, David. Silent Cal's Almanack"The Homespun Wit and Wisdom of Vermont's Calvin Coolidge. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform, 2008.

Shlaes, Amity. Coolidge. New York: Harper Collins, 2013.

Starita, Joe. I Am a Man: Chief Standing Bear's Journey for Justice. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2008.

Taliaferro, John. Great White Father's Story of the Obsessive Quest to Create Mount Rushmore. Public Affairs, 2007.

The Great Sioux Nation: Sitting in Judgment on America: An Oral History of the Sioux Nation & Its Struggle for Sovereignty. Edited by Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977, 2013.


Explore the Old West: Journeys of Exploration and Discovery, "Calvin Coolidge in the Black Hills." Accessed April 6, 2014.

Journal Editorial Board, . "Editorial: Tourism Important to South Dakota." Rapid City Journal, May 27, 2012. (accessed April 6, 2014).

Kern, Ellyn R. Calvin Coolidge Memorial Foundation, "Calvin Coolidge and Summer White Houses." Last modified 2002. Accessed April 6, 2014.

Miller Center University of Virginia, "American President: A Reference Resource Calvin Coolidge." Accessed April 6, 2014.

National First Ladies Library, "First Lady Biography, Grace Coolidge,"

Nebraskastudies.org1900-1924, "Native American Citizenship 1924 Citizenship Act." Accessed April 6, 2014.

South Dakota Department of Tourism, "2014 Annual Report." Last modified January 2014. Accessed April 6, 2014.

South Dakota Department of Tourism, "South Dakota Department of Tourism." Last modified 2014. Accessed April 6, 2014.

Staff Reports. Indian country Today Media Network, "Contrasting the times: Coolidge in the Black Hills in 1927." Last modified August 26, 2002. Accessed April 6, 2014.

"When the State Game Lodge was the Summer White House," Black Hills Visitor,